What is quantum computing?
Quantum computing is a different paradigm from classical computing that we all know (computers and other devices that we currently use on a daily basis). Quantum computing is based on the use of the laws of quantum mechanics, which implies that a particle can be found in two states at the same time.
How was quantum computing born?
The idea of quantum computing was born because it was increasingly difficult to manufacture smaller microchips, which could make that in a future it would be impossible to continue reducing the size of these microchips, so classical computing would end up reaching its limit. Because of this, it was necessary to discover new technologies that would overcome this limitation.
How does quantum computing work?
In summary, quantum computing is based on the use of qbits, rather than the bits used by classical computing. Like a bit, a qbit can acquire the values of 1 and 0, but by making use of the laws of quantum mechanics, it can acquire both values at the same time (it can be 80% by 1 and 20% a 0) which opens the possibility of applying logical operations that could not be applied to the bits.
What is quantum computing for?
Quantum computing has several advantages over the classical, among which a greater calculation power and a lower energy consumption stand out. This opens the door to solving problems that until now were intractable using classical computing. Using a conventional system to find the best solution to a problem, it would be necessary to test all possible solutions, however, with quantum computing, this would not be necessary. Being able to be in several states at the same time, a quantum system would be able to test these solutions simultaneously, being able to solve the problem in less time. This can allow important advances in other fields, such as Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning, since it would allow the creation of more complex and efficient models or in the study of the interaction between particles that would allow the creation of new materials.
What is its current status?
The field of quantum computing has barely advanced, however, in recent years, several technology companies have begun to research about this field. IBM has announced that it will sell the first quantum computer for commercial use. And a few days ago Google announced that it had reached quantum supremacy in the journal Nature having executed in minutes programs for which a conventional computer would have required years. Although it is not clear to what extent it is true, and although it may take years to finish developing and achieve results with really complex problems, what is clear is that quantum computing brings important advances and that, although currently cannot be used to solve complex problems , can be used for smaller situations and can achieve better results than classical computing.
What is the future of quantum computing?
Today, quantum computing has important limitations. Each qbit needs to be completely isolated, with at least one cable connection exclusive to it and needs to be maintained at very low temperatures. Currently, the models presented by Google and IBM have around 53 qbits. It is estimated that for a quantum computer to break a current encryption system, 100 million qbits would be necessary, so it is still quite far from solving problems really complex. The next steps in this field will be to improve the current design through which they work and increase the number of qbits that a quantum computer can use.
You can learn more about the qbits in this YouTube video that we love: